Cisapride is a medication that plays a crucial role in improving the overall well-being of our canine companions. This article is dedicated to exploring Cisapride for dogs, shedding light on its benefits, appropriate dosages, potential side effects, and much more. Our primary aim is to provide a comprehensive resource that ensures pet owners and veterinarians have access to essential information concerning this medication.
Table of Contents
The Significance of Cisapride in Canine Healthcare
Cisapride is an invaluable medication in the realm of veterinary medicine. It is essential to understand the importance of this drug in maintaining the health of dogs. To provide a clear and concise reference, we have compiled a table summarizing key information about Cisapride for veterinary use:
Cisapride, also known by its brand name Propulsid, belongs to the prokinetic drug class, which means it aids in enhancing gastrointestinal motility. This can be particularly beneficial when dogs face gastrointestinal issues, making it a valuable tool in managing various digestive disorders.
The Need for Professional Guidance
Before delving into the specifics of Cisapride, it’s crucial to emphasize that, like any medication, its administration should be overseen by a veterinarian. Consulting with a qualified veterinary professional is essential to ensure that Cisapride is suitable for your dog’s specific condition and needs. Self-administration without expert guidance can lead to potential risks, as well as the improper use of this medication.
The Purpose of this Article
The primary purpose of this article is to offer a comprehensive and easily accessible resource for dog owners and veterinarians seeking accurate and detailed information about Cisapride. Our goal is to provide insights into the benefits of Cisapride, the appropriate dosages, potential side effects, and the importance of consulting with a veterinarian before considering this medication for your dog. In the sections that follow, we will delve deeper into the world of Cisapride for dogs, exploring how it works, its benefits, proper administration, potential side effects, and more.
II. Understanding Cisapride
What is Cisapride?
Cisapride is a medication that falls under the category of prokinetic agents. These drugs are known for their ability to stimulate and enhance the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In the context of veterinary medicine, Cisapride serves as a valuable tool for addressing gastrointestinal disorders in dogs.
Cisapride is an FDA-approved medication, and its use in dogs is intended to facilitate the movement of food through the digestive system. This can be especially important when dogs suffer from conditions that affect their ability to digest and eliminate waste effectively.
How does Cisapride work in dogs’ bodies?
Cisapride primarily functions as a prokinetic agent by stimulating the contractions of the muscles within the gastrointestinal tract. These contractions are vital for the proper movement of food and waste through the digestive system. When dogs experience sluggish or ineffective gastrointestinal motility, they can develop various digestive disorders.
Cisapride works by interacting with receptors in the gastrointestinal muscles, leading to increased contractions. This improved motility helps to move food and waste through the stomach and intestines, promoting more efficient digestion and waste elimination.
Common conditions and ailments in dogs that Cisapride can treat or manage
Cisapride is commonly employed in the management and treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders in dogs. Some of the most prevalent conditions and ailments that Cisapride can address include:
1. Gastric Emptying Disorders
Gastric emptying disorders can lead to delayed digestion and absorption of nutrients. Dogs with these disorders may suffer from symptoms like vomiting and malnutrition. Cisapride can help regulate gastric emptying, reducing these distressing symptoms.
2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
GERD is a condition where stomach acid regurgitates into the esophagus, causing discomfort and potential damage. Cisapride can help by enhancing the muscular tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, which acts as a barrier between the stomach and esophagus.
In cases of constipation, dogs may struggle with infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool. Cisapride’s ability to promote gastrointestinal motility can alleviate constipation and facilitate more regular and comfortable bowel movements.
Megacolon is a condition characterized by an abnormally enlarged and poorly functioning colon. This condition can lead to chronic constipation. Cisapride, by enhancing colonic motility, can assist in managing the symptoms of megacolon and improving the dog’s quality of life.
5. Post-operative Ileus
After abdominal surgery, dogs may experience a slowdown in gastrointestinal motility, which can lead to complications. Cisapride can be administered post-operatively to prevent or manage ileus, ensuring a smoother recovery process.
It’s important to note that Cisapride is most effective when used in combination with other therapeutic approaches, such as dietary modifications or medications to address underlying causes. Veterinarians play a critical role in diagnosing the specific condition and determining the best course of treatment for individual dogs.
III. Benefits of Cisapride for Dogs
Cisapride offers several important benefits for dogs, especially when it comes to managing gastrointestinal disorders and improving their overall quality of life. In this section, we will delve into the specific advantages of using Cisapride in canine healthcare.
Effectiveness in Treating Specific Canine Health Issues
Cisapride is highly effective in addressing various canine health issues, primarily those related to the gastrointestinal system. Some of the key health problems in dogs where Cisapride has proven beneficial include:
1. Gastric Emptying Disorders
Dogs experiencing slow gastric emptying often face a range of digestive issues. These disorders can lead to bloating, discomfort, and even malnutrition. Cisapride’s ability to enhance gastric motility ensures that food is efficiently moved through the stomach, reducing the risk of complications and the discomfort associated with delayed digestion.
2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
GERD is a condition in which stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus, causing irritation and discomfort. Cisapride can help by tightening the lower esophageal sphincter, reducing the likelihood of acid reflux. This improvement in the muscular tone of the esophagus promotes a more comfortable and symptom-free life for dogs suffering from GERD.
Dogs with chronic constipation often struggle with infrequent, painful bowel movements. Cisapride can effectively alleviate constipation by stimulating intestinal contractions. This results in more regular bowel movements and less discomfort for affected dogs.
Megacolon is characterized by a distended, poorly functioning colon, which can lead to chronic constipation. Cisapride’s ability to increase colonic motility can help manage this condition effectively. By promoting regular bowel movements, it improves the quality of life for dogs with megacolon.
5. Post-operative Ileus
Following abdominal surgery, it is not uncommon for dogs to experience a slowdown in gastrointestinal motility, leading to complications. Cisapride, when administered post-operatively, can prevent or manage ileus, supporting a smoother recovery and reducing the risk of post-surgical complications.
How Cisapride Can Improve Dogs’ Quality of Life
The benefits of Cisapride extend beyond its direct impact on specific health issues. Here’s how Cisapride can enhance the overall quality of life for dogs:
1. Reduced Discomfort
Gastrointestinal disorders can cause a great deal of discomfort for dogs. Conditions like chronic constipation, delayed gastric emptying, and GERD can lead to pain, bloating, and nausea. By addressing these issues effectively, Cisapride reduces the discomfort associated with these conditions, leading to a happier and more content dog.
2. Improved Nutrition
Dogs with gastric emptying disorders often struggle with nutrient absorption. These issues can result in malnutrition and related health problems. Cisapride’s role in enhancing gastric motility ensures that food is properly digested and absorbed, leading to better nutrition and overall health.
3. Enhanced Mobility
Chronic constipation and related issues can make dogs less active and lead to a sedentary lifestyle. By alleviating constipation, Cisapride helps dogs maintain their mobility and enjoy a more active life.
4. Smoother Post-operative Recovery
After surgery, dogs require a smooth and uncomplicated recovery. Slow gastrointestinal motility can lead to complications that might prolong the recovery process. Cisapride, when administered post-operatively, can ensure a quicker and uneventful recovery, reducing stress and discomfort for both dogs and their owners.
It’s important to highlight that Cisapride’s effectiveness is maximized when used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan, often in combination with dietary modifications and other medications as recommended by a veterinarian. Consulting with a veterinary professional is essential to diagnose specific conditions and determine the most suitable treatment approach for each individual dog.
IV. Administering Cisapride to Dogs
Administering Cisapride to dogs requires careful attention to dosages, frequency, and the method of delivery. In this section, we will explore the critical aspects of giving Cisapride to your canine companion to ensure their safety and the effectiveness of the treatment.
Determining the appropriate Cisapride dosage for your dog is crucial and should always be guided by a licensed veterinarian. Dosages can vary based on your dog’s size, age, and the specific condition being treated. Typically, Cisapride is available in 1 mg, 2 mg, or 5 mg tablets. Here’s a general guideline:
- Small dogs (under 10 pounds): 1 mg tablet, every 8-12 hours.
- Medium-sized dogs (10-20 pounds): 2 mg tablet, every 8-12 hours.
- Large dogs (over 20 pounds): 5 mg tablet, every 8-12 hours.
However, these are general recommendations, and your veterinarian will create a tailored plan for your dog’s needs. Factors such as the severity of the condition, the dog’s response to treatment, and other medications they might be taking can influence the prescribed dosage.
It’s crucial to never adjust the dosage without consulting your veterinarian, as doing so can lead to complications or ineffectiveness of the treatment.
Frequency of Administration
The frequency of administering Cisapride can depend on your dog’s specific condition. In most cases, it’s given every 8-12 hours. Dogs with chronic gastrointestinal issues may need long-term or even lifelong Cisapride therapy to maintain their health. It’s essential to adhere to the prescribed schedule and not skip doses.
Directions for Use
Administering medication to dogs can sometimes be challenging, but there are several ways to make it easier:
1. Oral Administration
The most common method is to place the tablet directly in your dog’s mouth. Follow these steps:
- Hold your dog’s head gently but firmly.
- Use your other hand to open their mouth.
- Place the tablet at the back of their tongue.
- Close their mouth and gently stroke their throat to encourage swallowing.
Make sure your dog swallows the tablet entirely. This method is effective, but some dogs may resist it.
2. Hiding in Treats or Food
If your dog is particularly difficult when it comes to taking medication, you can try hiding the tablet in a treat or a small amount of food. Here’s how:
- Choose a treat or food that your dog likes and can easily hide the tablet’s size.
- Encase the tablet in the treat or food.
- Offer it to your dog, who should eat it without noticing the medication.
While this method might make administration more comfortable, it’s essential to ensure that your dog consumes the entire treat or food item to get the full dosage.
3. Liquid Formulations
In some cases, Cisapride might be prescribed in a liquid form. If so, your veterinarian will provide instructions on how to measure and administer the liquid accurately.
Importance of Adhering to Prescribed Dosages
Adhering to the prescribed dosages is vital to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment. Overdosing can lead to complications and side effects, while underdosing might result in an inadequate response to the medication. Always follow your veterinarian’s recommendations closely and consult them if you have any concerns or questions about the administration.
Missed Dose Guideline
If you accidentally miss a dose of Cisapride, administer it as soon as you remember, unless it’s close to the next scheduled dose. In that case, skip the missed dose and continue with the regular dosing schedule. Do not double the dosage to make up for a missed dose, as this can lead to unwanted side effects.
Consistency is essential in your dog’s treatment regimen, so strive to give the medication at the same times each day. If you frequently miss doses or have difficulty administering the medication, discuss alternative treatment options with your veterinarian.
V. Potential Side Effects and Precautions
While Cisapride can offer significant benefits in managing certain canine health conditions, it’s essential to be aware of potential side effects and take necessary precautions to ensure your dog’s well-being.
Common Side Effects of Cisapride in Dogs
Most dogs tolerate Cisapride well, and side effects are relatively rare. However, some dogs may experience mild side effects. These common side effects may include:
- Vomiting: Some dogs might experience occasional episodes of vomiting, especially when they first start taking Cisapride. This is usually a temporary side effect that resolves with continued use.
- Diarrhea: Diarrhea can occur, but it’s generally not severe. If your dog experiences diarrhea, consult your veterinarian for guidance.
- Excessive Drooling: Cisapride may occasionally cause increased salivation, leading to excessive drooling. This side effect is usually mild and transient.
Identifying Severe or Adverse Reactions
While most dogs tolerate Cisapride well, there is a potential for more severe or adverse reactions in rare cases. If you notice any of the following symptoms, contact your veterinarian immediately:
- Rapid Breathing or Difficulty Breathing: If your dog experiences labored or rapid breathing, it could be a sign of a severe adverse reaction. This requires immediate attention.
- Collapse or Weakness: Sudden weakness or collapse may be indicative of a severe reaction to the medication.
- Seizures: Seizures are a rare but severe side effect. If your dog has a seizure, seek immediate veterinary care.
- Allergic Reactions: Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include facial swelling, hives, itching, and difficulty breathing. This is a medical emergency, and you should contact your veterinarian or an emergency clinic immediately.
Precautions for Pregnant or Lactating Dogs
Cisapride is not generally recommended for use in pregnant dogs due to its potential to affect uterine contractions. It can lead to complications during pregnancy and labor. If your dog is pregnant, it’s essential to discuss alternative treatment options with your veterinarian.
For lactating dogs, the safety of Cisapride during nursing has not been adequately studied. It’s recommended to use it with caution under veterinary supervision. The benefits of the medication should be weighed against the potential risks to nursing puppies.
Interactions with Other Medications or Supplements
Before giving your dog Cisapride, it’s crucial to inform your veterinarian about any other medications or supplements your dog may be taking. Cisapride can interact with certain drugs, potentially leading to adverse effects. Some medications that may interact with Cisapride include:
- Erythromycin: An antibiotic commonly used to treat bacterial infections. When combined with Cisapride, it can increase the risk of irregular heart rhythms.
- Ketoconazole: An antifungal medication that may increase the effects of Cisapride, potentially leading to an increased risk of side effects.
- Phenobarbital: An antiepileptic drug that may reduce the effectiveness of Cisapride.
- Antacids: Some antacids may affect the absorption of Cisapride, reducing its effectiveness.
Your veterinarian will consider these potential interactions and adjust the treatment plan as needed to ensure your dog’s safety and the effectiveness of the medication.
Remember, never administer any new medications or supplements to your dog without consulting your veterinarian. They will provide you with the most accurate and tailored guidance for your pet’s specific needs.
VI. Consultation with a Veterinarian
As with any medication or treatment, professional guidance is essential when considering Cisapride for your dog. Your veterinarian plays a crucial role in ensuring the well-being of your pet and providing the best possible care. In this section, we’ll discuss the importance of consulting a veterinarian, provide information on overdose and toxicity, and help you recognize when it’s time to reach out to your vet.
Emphasizing the Importance of Professional Guidance
The importance of professional veterinary guidance cannot be overstated. While this article offers valuable information about Cisapride and its use in dogs, your veterinarian is the best resource for determining if this medication is appropriate for your dog’s specific condition.
Consulting your veterinarian allows for a comprehensive evaluation of your dog’s health, including a review of their medical history, current medications, and any potential contraindications or interactions with Cisapride. Your vet can also provide guidance on the most suitable dosage, administration, and monitoring plan tailored to your dog’s unique needs.
Overdose Information and Possible Toxicity/Effect
Cisapride overdose is a serious concern that can lead to severe consequences for your dog. It is vital to strictly adhere to the prescribed dosage and never exceed the recommended amount. If you suspect that your dog has ingested more Cisapride than prescribed or accidentally consumed the medication, contact your veterinarian or an emergency veterinary clinic immediately.
An overdose of Cisapride can result in severe side effects or toxic reactions, including:
- Irregular Heart Rhythms: Overdose can lead to arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening.
- Excessive Drooling and Panting: Your dog may exhibit unusual drooling and panting as a result of an overdose.
- Nausea and Vomiting: Cisapride overdose can cause severe gastrointestinal distress, leading to repeated vomiting.
- Diarrhea: Your dog may experience severe diarrhea, which can result in dehydration.
- Seizures: In severe cases, an overdose can induce seizures, a serious medical emergency.
Prompt action is essential if you suspect an overdose. Contact your veterinarian or an emergency veterinary clinic for guidance and support.
Signs or Symptoms: When to Call the Vet
There are certain signs and symptoms that should prompt you to contact your veterinarian when your dog is taking Cisapride:
- Irregular Heart Rhythms: If you notice your dog experiencing an irregular heartbeat, arrhythmias, or other cardiac abnormalities, contact your veterinarian immediately.
- Persistent Vomiting and Diarrhea: While mild vomiting and diarrhea can occur as side effects, persistent and severe episodes require veterinary evaluation to rule out overdose or other underlying issues.
- Labored Breathing or Rapid Respiration: If your dog has difficulty breathing or exhibits rapid, labored breaths, this is a cause for immediate concern.
- Seizures: If your dog experiences seizures or any signs of neurological abnormalities, seek urgent veterinary assistance.
- Allergic Reactions: In rare cases, dogs can develop allergic reactions to Cisapride, which may include facial swelling, hives, itching, and difficulty breathing. Allergic reactions demand immediate attention and should be considered a medical emergency.
How to Discuss Cisapride with Your Veterinarian
When discussing Cisapride with your veterinarian, it’s important to provide a detailed medical history for your dog, including any preexisting medical conditions, medications, or supplements they are currently taking. Additionally, be prepared to answer questions about your dog’s diet, behavior, and any noticeable changes in their health.
Ask your veterinarian about any concerns or questions you may have, including potential side effects or expected outcomes. They can offer guidance on how to administer Cisapride, ensuring your dog’s comfort during treatment. It’s also essential to understand the importance of adhering to prescribed dosages and not altering the treatment plan without consulting your veterinarian.
If you ever feel uncertain or require additional information, don’t hesitate to seek a second opinion from another qualified veterinarian. Your pet’s health is of utmost importance, and ensuring you have the most accurate and comprehensive advice is a responsible and caring approach to managing their well-being.
VII. Comparison with Similar Drugs in this Category
When it comes to managing gastrointestinal motility disorders and related issues in dogs, Cisapride is a valuable option. However, it’s essential to be aware of alternative medications, their effectiveness, and how they compare to Cisapride. In this section, we will explore some similar drugs in this category, comparing their efficacy, reasons for choosing one over the other, and considerations regarding the cost of these medications.
Cisapride vs. Metoclopramide
Metoclopramide is another medication used in veterinary medicine to address gastrointestinal motility disorders. While both Cisapride and Metoclopramide aim to improve digestive function, there are key differences between them.
Efficacy: Cisapride is often preferred when the primary concern is the management of disorders related to delayed gastric emptying or esophageal reflux. It’s considered to be highly effective for conditions such as megaesophagus and some forms of chronic constipation.
Metoclopramide, on the other hand, is frequently used for a broader range of gastrointestinal issues, including nausea and vomiting. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the stomach and upper intestines, leading to increased motility.
Choice Between the Two: The choice between Cisapride and Metoclopramide depends on the specific condition your dog is dealing with. If your dog has delayed gastric emptying or megaesophagus, Cisapride may be the preferred option. However, for dogs with frequent vomiting or nausea, Metoclopramide could be more appropriate.
Cost Comparison: In terms of cost, Cisapride may be slightly more expensive compared to Metoclopramide. However, the difference in price is generally not substantial, and the choice between the two drugs is typically based on the condition being treated rather than cost considerations.
Cisapride vs. Erythromycin
Erythromycin is an antibiotic that also has prokinetic properties, meaning it can enhance gastrointestinal motility. It’s occasionally used in veterinary medicine for certain gastrointestinal disorders.
Efficacy: Cisapride is generally considered more effective for gastrointestinal motility disorders compared to Erythromycin. Cisapride is specifically designed to stimulate contractions in the stomach and intestines, making it a more targeted solution.
Choice Between the Two: The choice between Cisapride and Erythromycin often hinges on the severity of the condition and the individual response of the dog. For mild cases or when Cisapride is not available, Erythromycin may be considered.
Cost Comparison: Cisapride may be more expensive than Erythromycin. However, since they serve somewhat different purposes, cost is not the sole determining factor when choosing between these two medications. Your veterinarian will make recommendations based on the specific needs of your dog.
Cisapride vs. Prokinetic Dietary Management
In some cases, especially with milder gastrointestinal issues, dietary changes may be recommended as an alternative to medication. Prokinetic dietary management involves feeding your dog specific foods designed to promote healthy digestion.
Efficacy: For dogs with mild gastrointestinal concerns or as a preventive measure, prokinetic dietary management can be effective. It encourages regular and efficient digestion without the need for medications.
Choice Between the Two: The choice between Cisapride and dietary management depends on the severity and nature of the issue. In many cases, dietary adjustments can be a first-line approach. Your veterinarian can provide guidance on whether dietary management is suitable for your dog’s specific situation.
Cost Comparison: Dietary management can be cost-effective as it primarily involves a change in your dog’s diet. While specialty foods may be more expensive than regular dog food, they can be a practical option for long-term gastrointestinal health.
In summary, the choice between Cisapride and similar drugs or dietary management should be made in consultation with your veterinarian. The specific condition your dog is facing, the expected outcomes, and individual responses to the treatment will guide your veterinarian’s recommendations. Cost considerations, while relevant, often take a back seat to the overall well-being and health of your furry friend. Always follow your veterinarian’s guidance for the most suitable approach to managing your dog’s gastrointestinal health.
VIII. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
As a pet owner, it’s natural to have questions and concerns when it comes to your dog’s health and medication. Cisapride is a medication that plays a crucial role in managing gastrointestinal motility disorders in dogs. Here, we’ll address some of the most frequently asked questions about Cisapride to help you better understand this medication and its usage.
1. What Is Cisapride Used For in Dogs?
Cisapride is primarily used in dogs to address gastrointestinal motility disorders. It promotes the movement of food and waste through the stomach and intestines. Conditions it can help manage include megaesophagus, chronic constipation, gastric stasis, and some forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
2. Is Cisapride FDA Approved for Veterinary Use?
Cisapride was previously approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in both human and veterinary medicine. However, it was withdrawn from the market for human use due to concerns about potential side effects in humans. While it can still be compounded for veterinary use, it’s essential to source it from a reputable compounding pharmacy.
3. How Does Cisapride Work in Dogs?
Cisapride works by stimulating contractions in the stomach and intestines. This increased motility helps move food through the digestive system more efficiently. For dogs with conditions like megaesophagus or chronic constipation, Cisapride can be a game-changer in improving their quality of life.
4. Can I Administer Cisapride to My Dog at Home?
Cisapride should always be administered under the guidance and prescription of a veterinarian. While it’s available in various forms, including tablets and oral suspension, your veterinarian will determine the appropriate dosage and administration schedule based on your dog’s condition.
5. What Are the Common Side Effects of Cisapride in Dogs?
Cisapride is generally well-tolerated by dogs. However, some dogs may experience mild side effects, such as vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive salivation. These side effects are usually temporary and should be discussed with your veterinarian.
6. What Should I Do if My Dog Misses a Dose of Cisapride?
If your dog misses a dose, follow your veterinarian’s guidance. In most cases, you can administer the missed dose when you remember it. However, never double the dose to make up for a missed one.
7. Are There Any Drug Interactions I Should Be Aware of?
While Cisapride is generally considered safe for dogs, it’s essential to inform your veterinarian about any other medications or supplements your dog is taking. Cisapride may interact with certain medications, and your veterinarian can adjust the treatment plan accordingly.
8. Can Pregnant or Lactating Dogs Receive Cisapride?
The safety of Cisapride in pregnant or lactating dogs has not been extensively studied. Therefore, its use in these cases should be carefully considered, and the potential risks and benefits should be discussed with your veterinarian.
9. Can Cisapride Be Used in Puppies?
Cisapride is generally safe for puppies when prescribed by a veterinarian. However, the appropriate dosage and administration should be determined by a healthcare professional based on the puppy’s age, size, and specific condition.
10. How Long Can My Dog Stay on Cisapride?
The duration of Cisapride treatment can vary depending on the underlying condition and your dog’s response to the medication. Some dogs may need short-term treatment, while others with chronic conditions may require longer-term use. Your veterinarian will provide guidance on the duration of treatment.
11. Can I Get Cisapride Over the Counter?
Cisapride is a prescription medication, and it should never be obtained over the counter. Your veterinarian will assess your dog’s condition and prescribe Cisapride only if it’s deemed necessary for their health.
12. What Alternatives Are There to Cisapride?
There are some alternative medications used to address gastrointestinal motility disorders in dogs. These alternatives may include Metoclopramide, Erythromycin, or prokinetic dietary management. The choice of medication depends on your dog’s specific condition and should be discussed with your veterinarian.
13. Are There Long-Term Side Effects of Cisapride?
In most cases, Cisapride is well-tolerated, and long-term use is safe when prescribed and monitored by a veterinarian. It’s important to attend regular check-ups with your veterinarian to ensure your dog’s ongoing well-being during long-term treatment.
In summary, Cisapride is a valuable medication in the management of gastrointestinal motility disorders in dogs. While it’s generally safe and effective, it should only be administered under the guidance of a veterinarian. If you have any concerns or questions about your dog’s health and the use of Cisapride, always consult with a veterinary professional who can provide the best advice and care for your furry friend.
Dr. Rachel Davis is a passionate veterinarian, having completed her studies in veterinary medicine at the University of California. Alongside her professional commitments, she remains dedicated to her beloved dog and has a profound love for all animals. In her spare time, she indulges in her passion for writing, often focusing on topics related to veterinary care and animal welfare.